Thursday, November 23, 2017

Computer Generations Notes In Hindi Language With Video Lecture For All Competitive Exam

Generations of Computer(कंप्यूटर की पीढ़ीया  )

Computer Generations का मतलब यह होता है कि समय के साथ साथ कंप्यूटर में जो technological  बदलाव किये गए | जिससे कंप्यूटर को छोटा, पावरफुल, विश्वसनीय बनाया जा सके |  इस टॉपिक में हम  कंप्यूटर की 5 पीढ़ियों के बारे में पड़ेगे | उसके साथ साथ हर पीढ़ी  में किस technology और हार्डवेयर का उपयोग किया गया.

First Generation Computers (1940 -1956) (कंप्यूटर की पहली पीढ़ी)

  1. पहेली पीढ़ी के कंप्यूटर में, Vacuum Tubes / Electronic Valves  का उपयोग किया जाता था. इन Vacuum Tubes की खोज 1908 में  Lee Deforest द्वारा की गई थी | ये Vacuum Tubes बहुत अधिक मात्रा में बिजली खाते थे| 
  2. पहेली पीढ़ी के कंप्यूटर में, Magnetic Drums का उपयोग डाटा को कंप्यूटर में  स्टोर करने के लिए किया जाता था | 
  3. पहेली पीढ़ी के कंप्यूटर केवल  Machine level language (Binary Numbers 0's, 1's) को ही समझते थे, इसलिए इसमें प्रोग्राम लिखने में काफी दिक्कत आती थी | क्योकि इसमें प्रोग्राम लिखने के लिए Machine level language का ज्ञान होना जरुरी है
  4. याद रखने योग्य बात, Binary Number System की खोज John von Neumann द्वारा की गई थी |  
  5. पहेली पीढ़ी के कंप्यूटर का आकर बहुत बड़ा होता था |  लगभग  एक कमरे  के बराबर | 
  6.  इन कंप्यूटर का उपयोग केवल  scientific purpose के  लिये  किया जाता था | 

पहेली पीढ़ी के कंप्यूटर के नाम (ENIAC, EDVAC, EDSAC, UNIVAC-1, IBM 640) : 

ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator) : ENIAC सबसे पहला electronic computer था जिसकी खोज 1946 में John Mauchly  और J. Presper Eckert ने  की थी

EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) : EDVAC की खोज 1950 में की गई थी | इस कंप्यूटर में ENIAC के मुकाबले काफी सुधार किये गए थे | 

EDSAC(Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer) : In 1949,  EDSAC was developed by M.V. Wilkes at Cambridge University. It become first computer uses stored program concept.

UNIVAC-1 : It was first commercial computer developed by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly in 1951.  It was first computer to use buffer memory.

Drawback of First Generation Computers : 

  1. Slow Processing Speed 
  2. Large Size
  3. Not Portable
  4. Less Storage Capacity
  5. More Power Consumption 
  6. Not Much Reliable as well as accurate
  7. Very Expensive

Second Generation Computers (1956 -1963)

  1. In this generation, Transistors are used as electronic component made up of semiconductors like silicon, germanium. 
  2. In 1953, Transistors Were developed by Bell Laboratory. 
  3. Magnetic Core Technology were used as storage device to store data in secondary storage.
  4. Ferrite Core was used to store data in main memory.
  5. Second Generation Computers can understand Assembly language / High Level Language, so writing a program on these computer was easy as compare to first generation computer.
  6. These computer was portable because size of these computers are not large as compare to first generation Computer.
  7. These computers are used for commercial purpose. 
  8. Some High Level Language are introduced in second generation such as FORTRAN (Formula Translation - 1957), ALGOL(Algorithmic Language - 1960), COBOL (Common Business-Oriented Language - 1960-1961).
  9. FORTRAN was first high level language developed by John Backus in 1957.

Example of 2nd Generation Computers (IBM 1620, CDC 3600, IBM 1401) 

Advantages of Second Generation Computers Over First Generation Computers : 

  1. High Processing Speed 
  2. Smaller Size
  3. More Storage Capacity
  4. Less Power Consumption 
  5. More Reliable & accurate
  6. Less Expensive

Third Generation Computers (1964 -1971)

  1. In this generation, ICs (Integrated Circuit) are used  as electronic component made up of silicon. 
  2. In 1958, ICs are developed by J.S. Kilby & Robert Noyce consist of thousands of transistors on a single chip.
  3. ICs are also known as semiconductor devices.
  4. Magnetic Core were used  as storage device to store data in Primary Memory.
  5. Third Generation Computers can understand High Level Language.
  6. High Level Language introduced in third generation i.e BASIC (Beginers All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Codes).

Example of 3rd Generation Computers (IBM 360, IBM 370, ICL - 1900, VAX 750) 

Features  of Third Generation Computers: 

  1. Processing Speed was much high
  2. Size was greatly reduced
  3. More Storage Capacity
  4. Less Power Consumption 
  5. More Reliable & accurate
  6. Less Expensive

Fourth Generation Computers (1971 - Present)

  1. In this generation, LSICs (Large Scale Integrated Circuit) are used.
  2. An IC Contain 100 component called Large Scale Integration (LSI).
  3. An IC Contain 1000 component called Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI). 
  4. Semiconductor Memory were used  as storage device to store data as primary memory.
  5. Hard Disk Was used to store data as secondary Storage Device.
  6. Fourth Generation Computers can understand High Level Language.
  7. Keyboards, Dot Matrix Printers are available in this generation.
  8. Operating System Such As MS-DOS, UNIX, Apple Macintosh was developed in fourth generation.
  9. Object Oriented Language Was developed in this generation Like C++ .
  10. Personal Computers  (Desktop, Laptop, Palmtop) are introduces in this generation.
  11. Theses generations computers are also known as Micro Computer or Personal computer.
  12. IBM Introduces its first personal computer in this generation.
  13. Intel 4004 Chip was invented by Ted Hoff in 1971.

Example of 4th Generation Computers (IBM PC, Apple-Macintosh) 

Fifth Generation Computers (Present And Beyond)

  1. In this generation, ULSIC (Ultra Large Scale Integrated Circuit) are used.
  2. First 64 bit Microprocessor developed in this generation.
  3. This generation computers uses Artificial Intelligence.

Example of 5th Generation Computers (Robotics, Artificial Intelligence) 

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