Wednesday, November 22, 2017

Computer Generations Notes In English Language With Video Lecture For All Competitive Exam

Generations of Computer

Computer Generations refers to technological changes made in computer over the time to make computer more smaller, cheaper, Powerful, efficient and reliable. In this chapter we will study 5 types of computer generations and discuss about the type of technology, hardware was used in each generation as well as their advantages and disadvantages.

First Generation Computers (1940 -1956)

  1. In First generation Computers, Vacuum Tubes / Electronic Valves were used  as electronic component. 
  2. In 1908, Vacuum Tubes was developed by Lee Deforest. These Vacuum Tubes consume more Power.
  3. In First generation Computers, Magnetic Drums were used  as storage device to store data.
  4. These Computers Only understand Machine level language (Binary Numbers 0's, 1's), so writing a program on these computer was very difficult.
  5. Most Important Point, Binary Number System are introduces by John von Neumann. 
  6. These computers was not portable because size of these computers are too large. Its near about equal to the size of one room.
  7. These computers are only used for scientific purpose. 

Example of 1st Generation Computers (ENIAC, EDVAC, EDSAC, UNIVAC-1, IBM 640) : 

ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator) : ENIAC was the first general-purpose electronic computer developed in 1946 by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert.

EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) : EDVAC was developed in 1950 as improvement over ENIAC. 

EDSAC(Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer) : In 1949,  EDSAC was developed by M.V. Wilkes at Cambridge University. It become first computer uses stored program concept.

UNIVAC-1 : It was first commercial computer developed by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly in 1951.  It was first computer to use buffer memory.

Drawback of First Generation Computers : 

  1. Slow Processing Speed 
  2. Large Size
  3. Not Portable
  4. Less Storage Capacity
  5. More Power Consumption 
  6. Not Much Reliable as well as accurate
  7. Very Expensive

Second Generation Computers (1956 -1963)

  1. In Second generation computers, Transistors are used as electronic component instead of Vacuum Tubes. These transistors are made up of semiconductors like silicon, germanium. 
  2. In 1953, Transistors Were developed by Bell Laboratory. 
  3. In Second generation computers, Magnetic Core Technology used as storage device to store data in secondary storage & Ferrite Core was used to store data in main memory.
  4. Second Generation Computers can understand Assembly language / High Level Language, so writing a program on these computers was easy as compare to first generation computers.
  5. These computers was portable because size of these computers are not large as compare to first generation Computers.
  6. These computers are used for commercial purpose. 
  7. Some High Level Language are introduced in second generation such as FORTRAN (Formula Translation - 1957), ALGOL(Algorithmic Language - 1960), COBOL (Common Business-Oriented Language - 1960-1961).
  8. FORTRAN was first high level language developed by John Backus in 1957.

Example of 2nd Generation Computers (IBM 1620, CDC 3600, IBM 1401) 

Advantages of Second Generation Computers Over First Generation Computers : 

  1. High Processing Speed 
  2. Smaller Size
  3. More Storage Capacity
  4. Less Power Consumption 
  5. More Reliable & accurate
  6. Less Expensive

Third Generation Computers (1964 -1971)

  1. In Third generation Computers, ICs (Integrated Circuit) are used  as electronic component made up of silicon. A Single  IC ,consist of thousands of transistors on a single chip.
  2. In 1958, ICs are developed by J.S. Kilby & Robert Noyce.
  3. ICs are also known as semiconductor devices.
  4. Magnetic Core were used  as storage device to store data in Primary Memory.
  5. Third Generation Computers can understand High Level Language.
  6. BASIC (Beginners All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Codes) is a high level language introduced in third generation. BASIC is a procedural language not object oriented language.

Example of 3rd Generation Computers (IBM 360, IBM 370, ICL - 1900, VAX 750) 

Features  of Third Generation Computers: 

  1. Processing Speed was much high
  2. Size was greatly reduced
  3. More Storage Capacity
  4. Less Power Consumption 
  5. More Reliable & accurate
  6. Less Expensive

Fourth Generation Computers (1971 - Present)

  1. In Fourth generation Computers, LSICs (Large Scale Integrated Circuit) are used. An IC Contain 100 component called Large Scale Integration (LSI).
  2. An IC Contain 1000 component called Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI). 
  3. Semiconductor Memory were used  as storage device to store data as primary memory.
  4. Hard Disk Was used to store data as secondary Storage Device.
  5. Fourth Generation Computers can understand High Level Language.
  6. Keyboards, Dot Matrix Printers are available in this generation.
  7. Operating System Such As MS-DOS, UNIX, Apple Macintosh was developed in fourth generation.
  8. Object Oriented Language Was developed in this generation Like C++ .
  9. Personal Computers  (Desktop, Laptop, Palmtop) introduces in this generation.
  10. Theses generation computers are also known as Micro Computer or Personal computer.
  11. IBM Introduces its first personal computer in this generation called IBM PC AT. where AT Stands For Advance Technology.
  12. Intel 4004 Chip was invented by Ted Hoff in 1971.

Example of 4th Generation Computers (IBM PC, Apple-Macintosh) 

Fifth Generation Computers (Present And Beyond)

  1. In this generation, ULSIC (Ultra Large Scale Integrated Circuit) are used.
  2. First 64 bit Microprocessor developed in this generation.
  3. This generation computers uses Artificial Intelligence.

Example of 5th Generation Computers (Robotics, Artificial Intelligence) 

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